Dr Ibrahim Salaheldin

تعريف عن كورس المعادلة الامريكية USMLE Step 1 Course

USMLE Step 1 Course  اهلا بيكم الكورس هو عبارة عن شرح كامل منهمج المعادلة الامريكية شرح كل شابتر عبارة عن Embryology _Anatomy _physiology _ pathology _Pharmacology شرحنا في كل  شابتر الجزأ الخاض بيه من ودى هي الشباتر الى شرحنها (Endocrinology _ Respiratory _ Renal _ Cardiology _ Reproductive _ Hematology Gastroenterology Neurology _Musculoskeletal) بعد كدة محاضرات المواد […]

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Seroconversion refers to the development of detectable antibodies in the blood as a result of an immune response to an infection or immunization. It is an essential process in the body’s defense against pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. Here’s how seroconversion works: Seroconversion is commonly discussed in the context of infectious diseases, especially viral

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DNA viruses

Family Structure Envelope Examples/importance Herpesviruses Double-stranded, linear Enveloped Herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus Hepadnavirus Double-stranded, circular Enveloped Hepatitis B virus Adenovirus Double-stranded, linear Naked Common cold, conjunctivitis Parvovirus Single-stranded, linear Naked Parvovirus B19 Papillomavirus Double-stranded, circular Naked HPV Poxvirus Double-stranded, linear Enveloped Smallpox, molluscum contagiosum Polyomavirus Double-stranded, circular Naked JC virus (progressive

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Childhood infections 

The table below summarises the main characteristics of childhood infections Infection Features Chickenpox Fever initiallyItchy, rash starting on head/trunk before spreading. Initially macular then papular then vesicularSystemic upset is usually mild Measles Prodrome: irritable, conjunctivitis, feverKoplik spots: white spots (‘grain of salt’) on buccal mucosaRash: starts behind ears then to whole body, discrete maculopapular rash

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The table below gives characteristic exam question features for conditions causing dysphagia. Remember that new-onset dysphagia is a red flag symptom that requires urgent endoscopy, regardless of age or other symptoms. Causes Notes Oesophageal cancer Dysphagia may be associated with weight loss, anorexia or vomiting during eatingPast history may include Barrett’s oesophagus, GORD, excessive smoking or alcohol

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